NJSDC-PH90-3

NJSDC 1990 CENSUS PUBLICATION



URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION AND HOUSING UNITS

NEW JERSEY, COUNTIES, AND MUNICIPALITIES

1990

                                
State of New Jersey
Christine Todd Whitman, Governor
Department of Labor
Peter J. Calderone, Commissioner
Division of Labor Market and Demographic Research
New Jersey State Data Center
CN 388
Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0388
                                
                                
                                
                                
                                
  
  
  
               NOTES ON DATA AND THE NJSDC/BIDC
  
  
  The NJSDC
  
     This report was prepared by the New Jersey State Data Center (NJSDC).  The NJSDC is
  a cooperative project of the State of New Jersey and the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Serving data
  users in the public, private, and academic sectors, the NJSDC has three main objectives:
  
     þ to expand access to and use of census and other statistics
     þ to provide technical assistance and analytical support in the use of these statistics
     þ to provide user training on timely, census-related topics.
  
     
     The NJSDC consists of a network of over 100 state, county, regional, and local agencies. 
  The lead agency is housed within the Division of Labor Market and Demographic Research, New
  Jersey Department of Labor.  For a complete list of the NJSDC contacts, write to: New Jersey
  State Data Center, New Jersey Department of Labor, CN 388, Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0388.
  
     A variety of statistical reports from State and Federal agencies may be accessed through
  the NJSDC network.  Most statistics are from the U.S. Bureau of the Census' regular and special
  censuses and surveys.  The NJSDC will publish New Jersey data from the 1990 Census of
  population and housing when they are available on a flow basis.  Data from the U.S. Bureau of
  Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis and the State and sub-state demographic and
  economic data prepared/compiled by the New Jersey Department of Labor are also available
  through the NJSDC.
  
     These data are made available in either printed reports, on computer tapes, diskettes,
  microfiche, and/or through an electronic bulletin board.  NJSDC Electronic Bulletin Board
  (NJSDC EBB) users have access to up-to-date publicly available data for New Jersey in an
  electronic format.  For more information on the NJSDC EBB, contact:  New Jersey State Data
  Center, New Jersey Department of Labor, CN 388, Trenton, NJ  08625-0388.
  
  The Report
  
     This report presents New Jersey urban and rural resident population and housing units for
  the State, counties, and municipalities.  The data for urban population and housing units 
  are separated into those inside Urbanized Areas and Outside Urbanized Areas.
  
     In addition to the printed report, these data are also available through the NJSDC EBB for
  subscribers (see the NJSDC description), and on diskette for a fee upon request. 
  
  
  Sources of the Data
  
     Data presented in this report are based on the 1990 Census of Population & Housing, 
  Summary Tape File 1 (STF 1), which contains 100-percent data.  Population items from STF1
  include age, race, sex, marital status, Hispanic origin, household type, and household relationship. 
  Population items are cross-tabulated by age, race, Hispanic origin, or sex.  Housing items include
  occupancy/vacancy status, tenure, units in structure, contract rent, meals included in rent, value,
  and number of rooms in housing unit.  Housing data are cross- tabulated by race or Hispanic origin
  of householder or by tenure.  Selected aggregates and medians also are provided.  Data are
  presented in 37 population tables (matrices) and 63 housing tables (matrices).
     
     The STF1A data for the State, counties, and municipalities are available for review at the
  State and Newark Public Libraries.  The county affiliates of the NJSDC have the STF1A data for
  their respective geographic areas.  (For a list of the county affiliates, contact:  New Jersey State
  Data Center, New Jersey Department of Labor, CN 388, Trenton, NJ  08625-0388.)
  
  
  Definitions
  
  
URBAN AND RURAL 

The Census Bureau defines "urban" for the 1990 census as
comprising all territory, population, and housing units in urbanized
areas and in places of 2,500 or more persons outside urbanized areas.
More specifically, "urban" consists of territory, persons, and
housing units in: 

1.  Places of 2,500 or more persons incorporated as cities, villages,
    boroughs (except in Alaska and New York), and towns (except in the six
    New England States, New York, and Wisconsin), but excluding the rural
    portions of "extended cities." 

2.  Census designated places of 2,500 or more persons.  

3.  Other territory, incorporated or unincorporated, included in
    urbanized areas.  

Territory, population, and housing units not classified as urban
constitute "rural." In the 100-percent data products,
"rural" is divided into "places of less than 2,500" and
"not in places." The "not in places" category comprises
"rural" outside incorporated and census designated places and the
rural portions of extended cities.  In many data products, the term
"other rural" is used; "other rural" is a residual category
specific to the classification of the rural in each data product.  

In the sample data products, rural population and housing units are
subdivided into "rural farm" and "rural nonfarm." "Rural
farm" comprises all rural households and housing units on farms
(places from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were sold in
1989); "rural nonfarm" comprises the remaining rural.  

The urban and rural classification cuts across the other hierarchies;
for example, there is generally both urban and rural territory within
both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.  

In censuses prior to 1950, "urban" comprised all territory,
persons, and housing units in incorporated places of 2,500 or more
persons, and in areas (usually minor civil divisions) classified as
urban under special rules relating to population size and density.  The
definition of urban that restricted itself to incorporated places
having 2,500 or more persons excluded many large, densely settled areas
merely because they were not incorporated.  Prior to the 1950 census,
the Census Bureau attempted to avoid some of the more obvious omissions
by classifying selected areas as "urban under special rules."
Even with these rules, however, many large, closely built-up areas were
excluded from the urban category.  

To improve its measure of urban territory, population, and housing
units, the Census Bureau adopted the concept of the urbanized area and
delineated boundaries for unincorporated places (now, census designated
places) for the 1950 census.  Urban was defined as territory, persons,
and housing units in urbanized areas and, outside urbanized areas, in
all places, incorporated or unincorporated, that had 2,500 or more
persons.  With the following three exceptions, the 1950 census
definition of urban has continued substantially unchanged.  First, in
the 1960 census (but not in the 1970, 1980, or 1990 censuses), certain
towns in the New England States, townships in New Jersey and
Pennsylvania, and Arlington County, Virginia, were designated as urban.
However, most of these "special rule" areas would have been
classified as urban anyway because they were included in an urbanized
area or in an unincorporated place of 2,500 or more persons.  Second,
"extended cities" were identified for the 1970, 1980, and 1990
censuses.  Extended cities primarily affect the figures for urban and
rural territory (area), but have very little effect on the urban and
rural population and housing units at the national and State levels--
although for some individual counties and urbanized areas, the effects
have been more evident.  Third, changes since the 1970 census in the
criteria for defining urbanized areas have permitted these areas to be
defined around smaller centers.

Documentation of the urbanized area and extended city criteria is
available from the Chief, Geography Division, U.S.  Bureau of the
Census, Washington, DC 20233.  

Extended City 

Since the 1960 census, there has been a trend in some States toward
the extension of city boundaries to include territory that is
essentially rural in character.  The classification of all the
population and living quarters of such places as urban would include in
the urban designation territory, persons, and housing units whose
environment is primarily rural.  For the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses,
the Census Bureau identified as rural such territory and its population
and housing units for each extended city whose closely settled area was
located in an urbanized area.  For the 1990 census, this classification
also has been applied to certain places outside urbanized areas.  

In summary presentations by size of place, the urban portion of an
extended city is classified by the population of the entire place; the
rural portion is included in "other rural." 

URBANIZED AREA (UA) 

The Census Bureau delineates urbanized areas (UA's) to provide a
better separation of urban and rural territory, population, and housing
in the vicinity of large places.  A UA comprises one or more places
("central place") and the adjacent densely settled surrounding
territory ("urban fringe") that together have a minimum of 50,000
persons.  The urban fringe generally consists of contiguous territory
having a density of least 1,000 persons per square mile.  The urban
fringe also includes outlying territory of such density if it was
connected to the core of the contiguous area by road and is within 1
1/2 road miles of that core, or within 5 road miles of the core but
separated by water or other undevelopable territory.  Other territory
with a population density of fewer than 1,000 people per square mile is
included in the urban fringe if it eliminates an enclave or closes an
indentation in the boundary of the urbanized area.  The population
density is determined by (1) outside of a place, one or more contiguous
census blocks with a population density of at least 1,000 persons per
square mile or (2) inclusion of a place containing census blocks that
have at least 50 percent of the population of the place and a density
of at least 1,000 persons per square mile.  The complete criteria are
available from the Chief, Geography Division, U.S.  Bureau of the
Census, Washington, DC 20233.  

Urbanized Area Central Place 

One or more central places function as the dominant centers of each
UA.  The identification of a UA central place permits the comparison of
this dominant center with the remaining territory in the UA.  There is
no limit on the number of central places, and not all central places
are necessarily included in the UA title.  UA central places include: 

Each place entirely (or partially, if the place is an extended
city) within the UA that is a central city of a metropolitan area (MA).

If the UA does not contain an MA central city or is located outside
of an MA, the central place(s) is determined by population size.  

Urbanized Area Title and Code 

The title of a UA identifies those places that are most important
within the UA; it links the UA to the encompassing MA, where
appropriate.  If a single MA includes most of the UA, the title and code
of the UA generally are the same as the title and code of the MA.  If
the UA is not mostly included in a single MA, if it does not include
any place that is a central city of the encompassing MA, or if it is
not located in an MA, the Census Bureau uses the population size of the
included places, with a preference for incorporated places, to
determine the UA title.  The name of each State in which the UA is
located also is in each UA title.  

The numeric code used to identify each UA is the same as the code for
the mostly encompassing MA (including CMSA and PMSA).  If MA title
cities represent multiple UA's, or the UA title city does not
correspond to the first name of an MA title, the Census Bureau assigns
a code based on the alphabetical sequence of the UA title in
relationship to the other UA and MA titles.